By Sidney Ochs
Sidney Ochs starts off his survey with a chronological examine the heritage of nerves from the 5th century B.C. to the early eighteenth century to illustrate the advance of our wisdom of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal functionality. Ochs then adopts a thematic process, contemplating key themes from the eighteenth century to the current. the amount will function a useful source for historians of neuroscience and medication, philosophers of technological know-how and drugs, and neuroscientists.
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Extra resources for A History of Nerve Functions: From Animal Spirits to Molecular Mechanisms
The very term arteria was derived from the Greek term for air. 94 Erasistratus’ identiﬁcation of pneuma with vitality categorizes him as a pneumatologist,95 whereas his fellow Alexandrian, Herophilus, was a humoralist who taught that human temperament was the result of a balance of body humors. As will be seen in the following chapter, both views were incorporated into Galen’s physiology, wherein both spirits and humors are carried by the blood. 93 94 95 (Wilson, 1959). This is the term still in use for the trachea in modern Greek medicine.
13:43 P1: FCH/FFX P2: FCH/FFX 052124742Xc02 QC: FCH/FFX T1: FCH CB616-Ochs-v2 December 29, 2003 GALEN’S PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 31 [4th ventricle], then the animal falls into a very heavy and pronounced stupor. 28 These effects, that Galen supposed were due to an interruption of the function of the 4th ventricle, were more likely to have been the result of damage to the underlying brain stem in which the vital functions were later found to be controlled. 29 Galen found a difference in the results obtained when pressing on the ventricles or making incisions into them.
72 Besides his own exposition of its nature, he also commented on the views of still older Greek philosophers, preserving what would otherwise be lost to us. His book was used in the teaching of psychology until the rise of modern science (Chapter 4). Some difﬁculty in interpreting Aristotle’s thought lies in the terminology he used to express his concepts, terms that through time changed by taking on extended meanings. 73 Aristotle, in dealing with the views of his precursors, thought they meant by the term the source of movement and perception.