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21 Madeline C. Zilfi, The Politics of Piety: The Ottoman Ulema in the Postclassical Age (1600 –1800) (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1988), pp. 143–44. 22 Summary by Dr Bılal Ku{pınar (personal communication) and Barbara R. von Schlegell, ‘Sufism in the Ottoman Arab World: Shaykh 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1997, pp. 86–87, 91–93. 34 chapter two After al-Birgawi’s death, Kadizade carried the principles of alBirgawi’s book further, giving rise to the Kadizadeliler movement.

The idea of union with the Prophet originates with Mu˙yi’l-Dìn ibn al-'Arabi (1165–1240); the preference for primary sources over the madhhabs can be found in Ibn al-'Arabi’s greatest critic A˙mad ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328); and the idea of a single †arìqa Mu˙ammadiyya (called by that name) consisting in following the Sunna of the Prophet originates with A˙mad al-Wàsì†i (1258–1311), a Sufi follower of Ibn Taymiyya. The later combination of the idea of union with the Prophet with the idea of a single †arìqa Mu˙ammadiyya was probably the work of 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nàbulusi (1641–1731), a great scholar in Damascus.

351–69. 3 The arguments against the once accepted understanding of ‘neo-Sufism’ are now well known and generally accepted by scholars working on later Sufism. See, especially, R. S. O’Fahey and Bernd Radtke, ‘Neo-Sufism Reconsidered,’ Der Islam 70 (1993), pp. 52–87. 4 Fazlur Rahman, Islam (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966), pp. 193–99. 5 The oppositional pairing of Sufi and ‘orthodox’ Islam has an interesting history. One element is that ‘orthodox’ Islam was identified as dry and legalistic, characteristic of the sterile Semitic mind, in contrast to the product of the richer Aryan minds of Persian Sufis.

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